Diagnose private links configuration issues on Azure Key Vault (2023)

Table of Contents
In this article Introduction Problems covered by this article Problems NOT covered by this article How to read this article 1. Confirm that you own the client connection Confirm that your client runs at the virtual network If you use a managed solution, refer to specific documentation 2. Confirm that the connection is approved and succeeded 3. Confirm that the key vault firewall is properly configured 4. Make sure the key vault has a private IP address Difference between private and public IP addresses Find the key vault private IP address in the virtual network 5. Validate the DNS resolution Key vaults without private link Key vault with private link resolving from arbitrary Internet machine Key vault with private link resolving from Virtual Network 6. Validate the Private DNS Zone Confirm that the required Private DNS Zone resource exists Confirm that the Private DNS Zone is linked to the Virtual Network Confirm that the Private DNS Zone contains the right A record DNS resolution for more than one Virtual Network Understand that you have control over DNS resolution 7. Validate that requests to key vault use private link Query the /healthstatus endpoint of the key vault Query the key vault IP address directly 8. Other changes and customizations that cause impact Diagnose custom DNS servers at Virtual Network Diagnose hosts overriding or custom DNS servers at Virtual Machine Promiscuous proxies (Fiddler, etc.) Other things that may affect connectivity FAQs Videos
  • Article
  • 21 minutes to read

Introduction

This article helps users diagnosing and fixing issues involving Key Vault and the Private Links feature. This guide helps on configuration aspects, such as getting private links working for the first time, or for fixing a situation where private links stopped working because of some change.

If you are new to this feature, see Integrate Key Vault with Azure Private Link.

Problems covered by this article

  • Your DNS queries still return a public IP address for the key vault, instead of a private IP address that you would expect from using the private links feature.
  • All requests made by a given client that is using private link, are failing with timeouts or network errors, and the problem is not intermittent.
  • The key vault has a private IP address, but requests still get 403 response with the ForbiddenByFirewall inner error code.
  • You are using private links, but your key vault still accepts requests from the public Internet.
  • Your key vault has two Private Endpoints. Requests using one are working fine, but requests using the other are failing.
  • You have another subscription, key vault, or virtual network that is using private links. You want to make a new similar deployment, but you can't get private links to work there.

Problems NOT covered by this article

  • There is an intermittent connectivity issue. In a given client, you see some requests working and some not working. Intermittent problems are typically not caused by an issue in private links configuration; they are a sign of network or client overload.
  • You are using an Azure product that supports BYOK (Bring Your Own Key), CMK (Customer Managed Keys), or access to secrets stored in key vault. When you enable the firewall in key vault settings, that product cannot access your key vault. Look at product specific documentation. Make sure it explicitly states support for key vaults with the firewall enabled. Contact support for that specific product, if needed.

How to read this article

If you are new to private links or you are evaluating a complex deployment, it's recommended that you read the entire article. Otherwise, feel free to choose the section that makes more sense for the problem you are facing.

Let's get started!

1. Confirm that you own the client connection

Confirm that your client runs at the virtual network

This guide is intended to help you fixing connections to key vault that originate from application code. Examples are applications and scripts that execute in Azure Virtual Machines, Azure Service Fabric clusters, Azure App Service, Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), and similar others. This guide is also applicable to accesses performed in the Azure portal web-base user interface, where the browser accesses your key vault directly.

By definition of private links, the application, script or portal must be running on machine, cluster, or environment connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint resource was deployed.

If the application, script or portal is running on an arbitrary Internet-connected network, this guide is NOT applicable, and likely private links cannot be used. This limitation is also applicable to commands executed in the Azure Cloud Shell, because they run in a remote Azure machine provided on-demand instead of the user browser.

If you use a managed solution, refer to specific documentation

This guide is NOT applicable to solutions that are managed by Microsoft, where the key vault is accessed by an Azure product that exists independently from the customer Virtual Network. Examples of such scenarios are Azure Storage or Azure SQL configured for encryption at rest, Azure Event Hub encrypting data with customer-provided keys, Azure Data Factory accessing service credentials stored in key vault, Azure Pipelines retrieving secrets from key vault, and other similar scenarios. In these cases, you must check if the product supports key vaults with the firewall enabled. This support is typically performed with the Trusted Services feature of Key Vault firewall. However, many products are not included in the list of trusted services, for a variety of reasons. In that case, reach the product-specific support.

A small number of Azure products supports the concept of vnet injection. In simple terms, the product adds a network device into the customer Virtual Network, allowing it to send requests as if was deployed to the Virtual Network. A notable example is Azure Databricks. Products like this can make requests to the key vault using the private links, and this troubleshooting guide may help.

2. Confirm that the connection is approved and succeeded

The following steps validate that the private endpoint connection is approved and succeeded:

  1. Open the Azure portal and open your key vault resource.
  2. In the left menu, select Networking.
  3. Click the Private endpoint connections tab. This will show all private endpoint connections and their respective states. If there are no connections, or if the connection for your Virtual Network is missing, you have to create a new Private Endpoint. This will be covered later.
  4. Still in Private endpoint connections, find the one you are diagnosing and confirm that "Connection state" is Approved and "Provisioning state" is Succeeded.
    • If the connection is in "Pending" state, you might be able to just approve it.
    • If the connection "Rejected", "Failed", "Error", "Disconnected" or other state, then it's not effective at all, you have to create a new Private Endpoint resource.

It's a good idea to delete ineffective connections in order to keep things clean.

3. Confirm that the key vault firewall is properly configured

Important

Changing firewall settings may remove access from legitimate clients that are still not using private links. Make sure you are aware of the implications of each change in the firewall configuration.

An important notion is that the private links feature only gives access to your key vault in a Virtual Network that is closed to prevent data exfiltration. It does not remove any existing access. In order to effectively block accesses from the public Internet, you must enable the key vault firewall explicitly:

  1. Open the Azure portal and open your key vault resource.
  2. In the left menu, select Networking.
  3. Make sure the Firewalls and virtual networks tab is selected on top.
  4. Make sure the option Private endpoint and selected networks is selected. If you find All networks select, that explains why external clients are still able to access the key vault.

The following statements also apply to firewall settings:

  • The private links feature doesn't require any "virtual network" to be specified in the key vault firewall settings. All requests using the private IP address of the key vault (see next section) must work, even if no virtual network is specified in key vault firewall settings.
  • The private links feature doesn't require specifying any IP address in the key vault firewall settings. Again, all requests using the private IP address of the key vault must work, even if no IP address was specified in the firewall settings.

If you are using private links, the only motivations for specifying virtual network or IP address in key vault firewall are:

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  • You have an hybrid system where some clients use private links, some use service endpoints, some use public IP address.
  • You are transitioning to private links. In this case, once you confirm all clients are using private links, you should remove virtual networks and IP addresses from the key vault firewall settings.

4. Make sure the key vault has a private IP address

Difference between private and public IP addresses

A private IP address has always one of the following formats:

  • 10.x.x.x: Examples: 10.1.2.3, 10.56.34.12.
  • 172.16.x.x to 172.32.x.x: Examples: 172.20.1.1, 172.31.67.89.
  • 192.168.x.x: Examples: 192.168.0.1, 192.168.100.7

Certain IP addresses and ranges are reserved:

  • 224.x.x.x: Multicast
  • 255.255.255.255: Broadcast
  • 127.x.x.x: Loopback
  • 169.254.x.x: Link-local
  • 168.63.129.16: Internal DNS

All other IP addresses are public.

When you browse the portal or run a command that shows the IP address, make sure you can identify if that IP address is private, public, or reserved. For private links to work, the key vault hostname must resolve to a private IP address belonging to the Virtual Network address space.

Find the key vault private IP address in the virtual network

You will need to diagnose hostname resolution, and for that you must know the exact private IP address of your key vault with private links enabled. In order to find that address, follow this procedure:

  1. Open the Azure portal and open your key vault resource.
  2. In the left menu, select Networking.
  3. Click the Private endpoint connections tab. This will show all private endpoint connections and their respective states.
  4. Find the one you are diagnosing and confirm that "Connection state" is Approved and Provisioning state is Succeeded. If you are not seeing this, go back to previous sections of this document.
  5. When you find the right item, click the link in the Private endpoint column. This will open the Private Endpoint resource.
  6. The Overview page may show a section called Custom DNS settings. Confirm that there is only one entry that matches the key vault hostname. That entry shows the key vault private IP address.
  7. You may also click the link at Network interface and confirm that the private IP address is the same displayed in the previous step. The network interface is a virtual device that represents key vault.

The IP address is the one that VMs and other devices running in the same Virtual Network will use to connect to the key vault. Make note of the IP address, or keep the browser tab open and don't touch it while you do further investigations.

Note

If your key vault has multiple private endpoints, then it has multiple private IP addresses. This is only useful if you have multiple Virtual Networks accessing the same key vault, each through its own Private Endpoint (the Private Endpoint belongs to a single Virtual Network). Make sure you diagnose the problem for the correct Virtual Network, and select the correct private endpoint connection in the procedure above. Furthermore, do not create multiple Private Endpoints for the same Key Vault in the same Virtual Network. This is not needed and is a source of confusion.

5. Validate the DNS resolution

DNS resolution is the process of translating the key vault hostname (example: fabrikam.vault.azure.net) into an IP address (example: 10.1.2.3). The following subsections show expected results of DNS resolution in each scenario.

Key vaults without private link

This section is intended for learning purposes. When the key vault has no private endpoint connection in approved state, resolving the hostname gives a result similar to this one:

Windows:

C:\> nslookup fabrikam.vault.azure.net
Non-authoritative answer:Address: 52.168.109.101Aliases: fabrikam.vault.azure.net data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net

Linux:

joe@MyUbuntu:~$ host fabrikam.vault.azure.net
fabrikam.vault.azure.net is an alias for data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net.data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net is an alias for data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net.data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net has address 52.168.109.101

You can see that the name resolves to a public IP address, and there is no privatelink alias. The alias is explained later, don't worry about it now.

The above result is expected regardless of the machine be connected to the Virtual Network or be an arbitrary machine with an Internet connection. This happens because the key vault has no private endpoint connection in approved state, and therefore there is no need for the key vault to support private links.

Key vault with private link resolving from arbitrary Internet machine

When the key vault has one or more private endpoint connections in approved state and you resolve the hostname from an arbitrary machine connected to the Internet (a machine that is not connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint resides), you shall find this:

Windows:

C:\> nslookup fabrikam.vault.azure.net
Non-authoritative answer:Address: 52.168.109.101Aliases: fabrikam.vault.azure.net fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net

Linux:

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joe@MyUbuntu:~$ host fabrikam.vault.azure.net
fabrikam.vault.azure.net is an alias for fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net.fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net is an alias for data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net.data-prod-eus.vaultcore.azure.net is an alias for data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net.data-prod-eus-region.vaultcore.azure.net has address 52.168.109.101

The notable difference from previous scenario is that there is a new alias with the value {vaultname}.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net. This means the key vault Data Plane is ready to accept requests from private links.

It doesn't mean that requests performed from machines outside the Virtual Network (like the one you just used) will use private links - they won't. You can see that from the fact that the hostname still resolves to a public IP address. Only machines connected to the Virtual Network can use private links. More on this will follow.

If you don't see the privatelink alias, it means the key vault has zero private endpoint connections in Approved state. Go back to this section before retrying.

Key vault with private link resolving from Virtual Network

When the key vault has one or more private endpoint connections in approved state and you resolve the hostname from a machine connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint was create, this is the expected response:

Windows:

C:\> nslookup fabrikam.vault.azure.net
Non-authoritative answer:Address: 10.1.2.3Aliases: fabrikam.vault.azure.net fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net

Linux:

joe@MyUbuntu:~$ host fabrikam.vault.azure.net
fabrikam.vault.azure.net is an alias for fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net.fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net has address 10.1.2.3

There are two notable differences. First, the name resolves to a private IP address. That must be the IP address that we found in the corresponding section of this article. Second, there are no other aliases after the privatelink one. This happens because the Virtual Network DNS servers intercept the chain of aliases and return the private IP address directly from the name fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net. That entry is actually an A record in a Private DNS Zone. More on this will follow.

Note

The outcome above only happens at a Virtual Machine connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint was created. If you don't have a VM deployed in the Virtual Network that contains the Private Endpoint, deploy one and connect remotely to it, then execute the nslookup command (Windows) or the host command (Linux) above.

If you run these commands on a Virtual Machine connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint was created, and they are not showing the key vault private IP address, the next section may help fixing the issue.

6. Validate the Private DNS Zone

If the DNS resolution is not working as described in previous section, there might be an issue with your Private DNS Zone and this section may help. If the DNS resolution shows the correct key vault private IP address, your Private DNS Zone is probably correct. You can skip this entire section.

Confirm that the required Private DNS Zone resource exists

Your Azure subscription must have a Private DNS Zone resource with this exact name:

privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net

You can check for the presence of this resource by going to the subscription page in the Portal, and selecting "Resources" on the left menu. The resource name must be privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net, and the resource type must be Private DNS zone.

Normally this resource is created automatically when you create a Private Endpoint using a common procedure. But there are cases where this resource is not created automatically and you have to do it manually. This resource might have been accidentally deleted as well.

If you don't have this resource, create a new Private DNS Zone resource in your subscription. Remember that the name must be exactly privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net, without spaces or additional dots. If you specify the wrong name, the name resolution explained in this article will not work. For more information on how to create this resource, see Create an Azure private DNS zone using the Azure portal. If you follow that page, you can skip Virtual Network creation because at this point you should have one already. You can also skip validation procedures with Virtual Machines.

Confirm that the Private DNS Zone is linked to the Virtual Network

It is not enough to have a Private DNS Zone. It must also be linked to the Virtual Network that contains the Private Endpoint. If the Private DNS Zone is not linked to the correct Virtual Network, any DNS resolution from that Virtual Network will ignore the Private DNS Zone.

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Open the Private DNS Zone resource and click the Virtual network links option in the left menu. This will show a list of links, each with the name of a Virtual Network in your subscription. The Virtual Network that contains the Private Endpoint resource must be listed here. If it's not there, add it. For detailed steps, see Link the virtual network. You can leave "Enable auto registration" unchecked - that feature is not related to private links.

Once the Private DNS Zone is linked to the Virtual Network, DNS requests originating from the Virtual Network will look for names in the Private DNS Zone. This is required for correct address resolution performed at Virtual Machines connected to the Virtual Network where the Private Endpoint was created.

Note

If you just saved the link, it may take some time for this go into effect, even after the Portal says the operation is complete. You might also need to reboot the VM that you are using to test DNS resolution.

Confirm that the Private DNS Zone contains the right A record

Using the Portal, open the Private DNS Zone with name privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net. The Overview page shows all records. By default, there will be one record with name @ and type SOA, meaning Start of Authority. Don't touch that.

For the key vault name resolution to work, there must be an A record with the simple vault name without suffix or dots. For example, if the hostname is fabrikam.vault.azure.net, there must be an A record with the name fabrikam, without any suffix or dots.

Also, the value of the A record (the IP address) must be the key vault private IP address. If you find the A record but it contains the wrong IP address, you must remove the wrong IP address and add a new one. It's recommended that you remove the entire A record and add a new one.

Note

Whenever you remove or modify an A record, the machine may still resolve to the old IP address because the TTL (Time To Live) value might not be expired yet. It is recommended that you always specify a TTL value no smaller than 10 seconds and no bigger than 600 seconds (10 minutes). If you specify a value that is too large, your clients may take too long to recover from outages.

DNS resolution for more than one Virtual Network

If there are multiple Virtual Networks and each has its own Private Endpoint resource referencing the same key vault, then the key vault hostname needs to resolve to a different private IP address depending on the network. This means multiple Private DNS Zones are also needed, each linked to a different Virtual Network and using a different IP address in the A record.

In more advanced scenarios, the Virtual Networks may have peering enabled. In this case, only one Virtual Network needs the Private Endpoint resource, although both may need to be linked to the Private DNS Zone resource. This is scenario is not directly covered by this document.

Understand that you have control over DNS resolution

As explained in the previous section, a key vault with private links has the alias {vaultname}.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net in its public registration. The DNS server used by the Virtual Network uses the public registration, but it checks every alias for a private registration, and if one is found, it will stop following aliases defined at public registration.

This logic means that if the Virtual Network is linked to a Private DNS Zone with name privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net, and the public DNS registration for the key vault has the alias fabrikam.privatelink.vaultcore.azure.net (note that the key vault hostname suffix matches the Private DNS Zone name exactly), then the DNS query will look for an A record with name fabrikam in the Private DNS Zone. If the A record is found, its IP address is returned in the DNS query, and no further lookup is performed at public DNS registration.

As you can see, the name resolution is under your control. The rationales for this design are:

  • You may have a complex scenario that involves custom DNS servers and integration with on-premises networks. In that case, you need to control how names are translated to IP addresses.
  • You may need to access a key vault without private links. In that case, resolving the hostname from the Virtual Network must return the public IP address, and this happens because key vaults without private links don't have the privatelink alias in the name registration.

7. Validate that requests to key vault use private link

Query the /healthstatus endpoint of the key vault

Your key vault provides the /healthstatus endpoint, which can be used for diagnostics. The response headers include the origin IP address, as seen by the key vault service. You can call that endpoint with the following command (remember to use your key vault hostname):

Windows (PowerShell):

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PS C:\> $(Invoke-WebRequest -UseBasicParsing -Uri https://fabrikam.vault.azure.net/healthstatus).Headers
Key Value--- -----Pragma no-cachex-ms-request-id 3729ddde-eb6d-4060-af2b-aac08661d2ecx-ms-keyvault-service-version 1.2.27.0x-ms-keyvault-network-info addr=10.4.5.6;act_addr_fam=InterNetworkV6;Strict-Transport-Security max-age=31536000;includeSubDomainsContent-Length 4Cache-Control no-cacheContent-Type application/json; charset=utf-8

Linux, or a recent version of Windows 10 that includes curl:

joe@MyUbuntu:~$ curl -i https://fabrikam.vault.azure.net/healthstatus
HTTP/1.1 200 OKCache-Control: no-cachePragma: no-cacheContent-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8x-ms-request-id: 6c090c46-0a1c-48ab-b740-3442ce17e75ex-ms-keyvault-service-version: 1.2.27.0x-ms-keyvault-network-info: addr=10.4.5.6;act_addr_fam=InterNetworkV6;Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000;includeSubDomainsContent-Length: 4

If you are not getting an output similar to that, or if you get a network error, it means your key vault is not accessible via the hostname you specified (fabrikam.vault.azure.net in the example). Either the hostname is not resolving to the correct IP address, or you have a connectivity issue at the transport layer. It may be caused by routing issues, package drops, and other reasons. You have to investigate further.

The response must include header x-ms-keyvault-network-info:

x-ms-keyvault-network-info: addr=10.4.5.6;act_addr_fam=InterNetworkV6;

The addr field in the x-ms-keyvault-network-info header shows the IP address of the origin of the request. This IP address can be one of the following:

  • The private IP address of the machine doing the request. This indicates that the request is using private links or service endpoints. This is the expected outcome for private links.
  • Some other private IP address, not from the machine doing the request. This indicates that some custom routing is effective. It still indicates that the request is using private links or service endpoints.
  • Some public IP address. This indicates that the request is being routed to the Internet through a gateway (NAT) device. This indicates that the request is NOT using private links, and some issue needs to be fixed. The common reasons for this are 1) the private endpoint is not in approved and succeeded state; and 2) the hostname is not resolving to the key vault's private IP address. This article includes troubleshooting actions for both cases.

Note

If the request to /healthstatus works, but the x-ms-keyvault-network-info header is missing, then the endpoint is likely not being served by the key vault. Since the above commands also validate HTTPS certificate, the missing header might be a sign of tampering.

Query the key vault IP address directly

Important

Accessing the key vault without HTTPS certificate validation is dangerous and can only be used for learning purposes. Production code must NEVER access the key vault without this client-side validation. Even if you are just diagnosing issues, you might be subject to tampering attempts that will not be revealed if you frequently disable HTTPS certificate validation in your requests to key vault.

If you installed a recent version of PowerShell, you can use -SkipCertificateCheck to skip HTTPS certificate checks, then you can target the key vault IP address directly:

PS C:\> $(Invoke-WebRequest -SkipCertificateCheck -Uri https://10.1.2.3/healthstatus).Headers

If you are using curl, you can do the same with the -k argument:

joe@MyUbuntu:~$ curl -i -k https://10.1.2.3/healthstatus

The responses must be the same of previous section, which means it must include the x-ms-keyvault-network-info header with the same value. The /healthstatus endpoint doesn't care if you are using the key vault hostname or IP address.

If you see x-ms-keyvault-network-info returning one value for the request using the key vault hostname, and another value for the request using the IP address, then each request is targeting a different endpoint. Refer to the explanation of the addr field from x-ms-keyvault-network-info in the previous section, to decide which case is wrong and needs to be fixed.

8. Other changes and customizations that cause impact

The following items are non-exhaustive investigation actions. They will tell you where to look for additional issues, but you must have advanced network knowledge to fix issues in these scenarios.

Diagnose custom DNS servers at Virtual Network

In the Portal, open the Virtual Network resource. In the left menu, open DNS servers. If you are using "Custom", then DNS resolution may not be as described in this document. You have to diagnose how your DNS servers are resolving the key vault hostname.

If you are using the default Azure-provided DNS servers, this entire document is applicable.

Diagnose hosts overriding or custom DNS servers at Virtual Machine

Many operating systems allow setting an explicit fixed IP address per hostname, typically by changing the hosts file. They may also allow overriding the DNS servers. If you use one of these scenarios, proceed with system specific diagnostics options.

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Promiscuous proxies (Fiddler, etc.)

Except when explicitly noted, the diagnostics options in this article only work if there is no promiscuous proxy present in the environment. While these proxies are often installed exclusively in the machine that is being diagnosed (Fiddler is the most common example), advanced administrators may overwrite root Certificate Authorities (CAs) and install a promiscuous proxy in gateway devices that serve multiple machines in the network. These proxies can affect both security and reliability substantially. Microsoft does not support configurations that use such products.

Other things that may affect connectivity

This is a non-exhaustive list of items that can be found on advanced or complex scenarios:

  • Firewall settings, either the Azure Firewall connected to the Virtual Network, or a custom firewall solution deploying in the Virtual Network or in the machine.
  • Network peering, which may impact which DNS servers are used and how traffic is routed.
  • Custom gateway (NAT) solutions, which may impact how traffic is routed, including traffic from DNS queries.

FAQs

How do I approve private endpoint connections? ›

Use Approve-AzPrivateEndpointConnection cmdlet to approve a Private Endpoint connection.

How do you access a key vault from a private endpoint? ›

Select the key vault from the list to which you want to add a private endpoint. Select the "Networking" tab under Settings. Select the "Private endpoint connections" tab at the top of the page. Select the "+ Create" button at the top of the page.

How do I configure access to secrets in Azure vault? ›

Assign an access policy
  1. In the Azure portal, navigate to the Key Vault resource.
  2. Under Settings, select Access policies, then select Add Access Policy:
  3. Select the permissions you want under Certificate permissions, Key permissions, and Secret permissions.
25 Apr 2022

Is private link and private endpoint same? ›

The private endpoint must be deployed in the same region and subscription as the virtual network. The private-link resource can be deployed in a different region than the one for the virtual network and private endpoint. Multiple private endpoints can be created with the same private-link resource.

How do I connect to Azure private link? ›

Using Azure Private Link to connect to a SQL Database
  1. Create a Virtual Network. ...
  2. Create a Virtual Machine. ...
  3. Create a SQL Database Server. ...
  4. Create a Private Endpoint Now, we need to create a Private Endpoint to the SQL Server. ...
  5. Connect to the SQL Database securely Everything is setup to create a secure connection.
14 Mar 2020

What is the difference between service endpoint and private endpoint? ›

A Service Endpoint remains a publicly routable IP address. A Private Endpoint is a private IP in the address space of the virtual network where the private endpoint is configured.

How do I access Azure private endpoint? ›

Select the Networking tab or select the Next: Networking button. In the Networking tab, under Network connectivity select Disable public access and use private access. In Private endpoint, select + Add private endpoint. Select your Azure subscription.

What is private endpoint connection in Azure? ›

A private endpoint is a special network interface for an Azure service in your Virtual Network (VNet). When you create a private endpoint for your storage account, it provides secure connectivity between clients on your VNet and your storage.

Which secret permissions should be used in Azure key vault? ›

Only works for key vaults that use the 'Azure role-based access control' permission model. There is no Key Vault Certificate User because applications require secrets portion of certificate with private key. The Key Vault Secrets User role should be used for applications to retrieve certificate.

What is difference between key and secret in Azure key vault? ›

When Azure Key Vault creates the certificate, it creates a related private key and password. The password is stored as an Azure Secret while the private key is stored as an Azure Key. Expired certificates can roll over with notifications before these operations happen.

How do I authenticate with Azure key vault? ›

There are three ways to authenticate to Azure Key Vault:
  1. Managed Identities.
  2. Service Principal and Secret. You can use a Service Principal and a secret to access a key vault. ...
  3. Service Principal and Certificate. You can use a Service Principal and associated certificates to access key vault.
6 May 2020

What is private link? ›

AWS PrivateLink provides private connectivity between virtual private clouds (VPCs), supported AWS services, and your on-premises networks without exposing your traffic to the public internet.

Which Azure resource is automatically configured when you enable the service endpoint? ›

Network security groups (NSGs) with service endpoints: By default, NSGs allow outbound internet traffic and also allow traffic from your VNet to Azure services.

Is Azure private link encrypted? ›

Azure AD protects data by using strong encryption for data at rest and in transit and also salts, hashes, and securely stores user credentials.

Why do we need a private endpoint? ›

With a private endpoint, you can assign the storage account a private IP address from a VNet, and a virtual machine (VM) in that VNet can access the storage account without going over the internet. This is powerful because it means you don't need to use public IP addresses, either at the traffic source or destination.

How do I delete a private endpoint in Azure? ›

This can be done from portal easily.
  1. Open PLS.
  2. Settings > Private endpoint connections.
  3. Select the Private endpoint you want to remove; Select all if you want to delete all.
  4. Click on 'Remove'
10 Mar 2020

How do I setup a private link? ›

On the upper-left side of the screen in the portal, select Create a resource > Networking > Private Link, or in the search box enter Private Link. Select Create. In Private Link Center, select Private endpoints in the left-hand menu. In Private endpoints, select + Add.

What Azure Services Support Private Link? ›

Azure Private Link enables you to access Azure PaaS Services (for example, Azure Storage and SQL Database) and Azure hosted customer-owned/partner services over a private endpoint in your virtual network.

How do I create a private endpoint in Azure? ›

Create a private endpoint
  1. In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Private endpoint. ...
  2. Select + Create in Private endpoints.
  3. In the Basics tab of Create a private endpoint, enter or select the following information. ...
  4. Select Next: Resource.
  5. In the Resource pane, enter or select the following information.
14 Jul 2022

How do I access Azure private endpoint? ›

Test connectivity to private endpoint
  1. Select Resource groups in the left-hand navigation pane.
  2. Select myResourceGroup.
  3. Select myVM.
  4. On the overview page for myVM, select Connect then Bastion.
  5. Enter the username and password that you entered during the virtual machine creation.
  6. Select Connect button.
22 Jun 2022

How do I connect to a private endpoint in SQL Server? ›

  1. Prerequisites.
  2. Sign in to Azure.
  3. Create a virtual network and bastion host.
  4. Create a virtual machine.
  5. Create an Azure SQL server and private endpoint.
  6. Disable public access to Azure SQL logical server.
  7. Test connectivity to private endpoint.
  8. Clean up resources.
22 Jun 2022

What is the difference between service endpoint and private endpoint? ›

A Service Endpoint remains a publicly routable IP address. A Private Endpoint is a private IP in the address space of the virtual network where the private endpoint is configured.

How do I enable private endpoints in Azure? ›

Create a private endpoint
  1. In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Private endpoint. ...
  2. Select + Create in Private endpoints.
  3. In the Basics tab of Create a private endpoint, enter or select the following information. ...
  4. Select Next: Resource.
  5. In the Resource pane, enter or select the following information.
14 Jul 2022

What is Azure private link? ›

Azure Private Link provides private connectivity from a virtual network to Azure platform as a service (PaaS), customer-owned, or Microsoft partner services. It simplifies the network architecture and secures the connection between endpoints in Azure by eliminating data exposure to the public internet.

Is Azure private link unidirectional? ›

Key Features of Azure Private Endpoints

Unidirectional Connectivity – Network connections are unidirectional and are initiated by the consumers for the Private Endpoint resource.

What is a private link service? ›

AWS PrivateLink provides private connectivity between VPCs, AWS services, and your on-premises networks, without exposing your traffic to the public internet. AWS PrivateLink makes it easy to connect services across different accounts and VPCs to significantly simplify your network architecture.

What is private endpoint in Azure SQL Database? ›

A private endpoint is a private IP address within a specific VNet and subnet. Important. This article applies to both Azure SQL Database and dedicated SQL pool (formerly SQL DW) in Azure Synapse Analytics.

How do I connect Azure Data Factory to an Azure SQL database using a private endpoint? ›

Approval of a private link in SQL Server
  1. In the SQL server, go to Private endpoint connections under the Settings section.
  2. Select the check box for the private endpoint you created, and select Approve.
  3. Add a description, and select yes.
  4. Go back to the Managed private endpoints section of the Manage tab in Data Factory.
27 Sept 2022

How do I connect to premise SQL Server to Azure SQL Database? ›

Connect with SSMS

On the on-premises client computer, open SQL Server Management Studio. In the Connect to Server dialog box, enter the fully qualified host name for your managed instance in the Server name box. Select SQL Server Authentication, provide your username and password, and then select Connect.

Why do we need private endpoint in Azure? ›

A private endpoint is a special network interface for an Azure service in your Virtual Network (VNet). When you create a private endpoint for your storage account, it provides secure connectivity between clients on your VNet and your storage.

How does Azure private DNS work? ›

Azure Private DNS manages and resolves domain names in the virtual network without the need to configure a custom DNS solution. By using private DNS zones, you can use your own custom domain name instead of the Azure-provided names during deployment.

Which Azure resource is automatically configured when you enable the service endpoint? ›

Network security groups (NSGs) with service endpoints: By default, NSGs allow outbound internet traffic and also allow traffic from your VNet to Azure services.

How do I secure a private endpoint in Azure? ›

See this step for details.
  1. Why use a Private Endpoint for secure access? ...
  2. Create the virtual network. ...
  3. Create a search service with a private endpoint. ...
  4. Create a virtual machine. ...
  5. Connect to the VM. ...
  6. Test connections. ...
  7. Use the Azure portal to access a private search service. ...
  8. Clean up resources.
15 Sept 2022

What is private DNS zone in Azure? ›

Azure Private DNS provides a reliable, secure DNS service to manage and resolve domain names in a virtual network without the need to add a custom DNS solution. By using private DNS zones, you can use your own custom domain names rather than the Azure-provided names available today.

Can I connect to private endpoint through a VNET peering? ›

Of course Yes. You can see the description here: The private endpoint can be reached from the same virtual network, regionally peered VNets, globally peered VNets and on premises using private VPN or ExpressRoute connections.

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