Thischapter of the Bankruptcy Code provides for adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income.Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep property and pay debts over time, usually three to five years.
A chapter 13 bankruptcy is also called a wage earner's plan. It enables individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay all or part of their debts. Under this chapter, debtors propose a repayment plan to make installments to creditors over three to five years. If the debtor's current monthly income is less than the applicable state median, the plan will be for three years unless the court approves a longer period "for cause." (1) If the debtor's current monthly income is greater than the applicable state median, the plan generally must be for five years. In no case may a plan provide for payments over a period longer than five years. 11 U.S.C. §1322(d). During this time the law forbids creditors from starting or continuing collection efforts.
This chapter discusses six aspects of a chapter 13 proceeding: the advantages of choosing chapter 13, the chapter 13 eligibility requirements, how a chapter 13 proceeding works, making the plan work, and the special chapter 13 discharge.
Advantages of Chapter 13
Chapter 13 offers individuals a number of advantages over liquidation under chapter 7. Perhaps most significantly, chapter 13 offers individuals an opportunity to save their homes from foreclosure. By filing under this chapter, individuals can stop foreclosure proceedings and may cure delinquent mortgage payments over time. Nevertheless, they must still make all mortgage payments that come due during the chapter 13 plan on time. Another advantage of chapter 13 is that it allows individuals to reschedule secured debts (other than a mortgage for their primary residence) and extend them over the life of the chapter 13 plan. Doing this may lower the payments. Chapter 13 also has a special provision that protects third parties who are liable with the debtor on "consumer debts." This provision may protect co-signers. Finally, chapter 13 acts like a consolidation loan under which the individual makes the plan payments to a chapter 13 trustee who then distributes payments to creditors. Individuals will have no direct contact with creditors while under chapter 13 protection.
Chapter 13 Eligibility
Any individual, even if self-employed or operating an unincorporated business, is eligible for chapter 13 relief as long as the individual's combined total secured andunsecured debts are less than $2,750,000as of the date of filing for bankruptcy relief. 11 U.S.C. §109(e).
An individual cannot file under chapter 13 or any other chapter if, during the preceding 180 days, a prior bankruptcy petition was dismissed due to the debtor's willful failure to appear before the court or comply with orders of the court or was voluntarily dismissed after creditors sought relief from the bankruptcy court to recover property upon which they hold liens. 11 U.S.C. §§109(g), 362(d) and (e). In addition, no individual may be a debtor under chapter 13 or any chapter of the Bankruptcy Code unless he or she has, within 180 days before filing, received credit counseling from an approved credit counseling agency either in an individual or group briefing. 11 U.S.C. §§109, 111. There are exceptions in emergency situations or where the U.S. trustee (or bankruptcy administrator) has determined that there are insufficient approved agencies to provide the required counseling. If a debt management plan is developed during required credit counseling, it must be filed with the court.
How Chapter 13 Works
A chapter 13 case begins by filing a petition with the bankruptcy court serving the area where the debtor has a domicile or residence. Unless the court orders otherwise, the debtor must also file with the court: (1) schedules of assets and liabilities; (2) a schedule of current income and expenditures; (3) a schedule of executory contracts and unexpired leases; and (4) a statement of financial affairs. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 1007(b). The debtor must also file a certificate of credit counseling and a copy of any debt repayment plan developed through credit counseling; evidence of payment from employers, if any, received 60 days before filing; a statement of monthly net income and any anticipated increase in income or expenses after filing; and a record of any interest the debtor has in federal or state qualified education or tuition accounts. 11 U.S.C. §521. The debtor must provide the chapter 13 case trustee with a copy of the tax return or transcripts for the most recent tax year as well as tax returns filed during the case (including tax returns for prior years that had not been filed when the case began). Id. A husband and wife may file a joint petition or individual petitions. 11 U.S.C. §302(a). (The Official Forms may be purchased at legal stationery stores or downloaded from the Internet at www.uscourts.gov/bkforms/index.html. They are not available from the court.)
The courts must charge a $235 case filing fee and a $75 miscellaneous administrative fee. Normally the fees must be paid to the clerk of the court upon filing. With the court's permission, however, they may be paid in installments. 28 U.S.C. §1930(a); Fed. R. Bankr. P. 1006(b); Bankruptcy Court Miscellaneous Fee Schedule, Item 8. The number of installments is limited to four, and the debtor must make the final installment no later than 120 days after filing the petition. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 1006(b). For cause shown, the court may extend the time of any installment, as long as the last installment is paid no later than 180 days after filing the petition. Id. The debtor may also pay the $75 administrative fee in installments. If a joint petition is filed, only one filing fee and one administrative fee are charged. Debtors should be aware that failure to pay these fees may result in dismissal of the case. 11 U.S.C. §1307(c)(2).
In order to complete the Official Bankruptcy Forms that make up the petition, statement of financial affairs, and schedules, the debtor must compile the following information:
- A list of all creditors and the amounts and nature of their claims;
- The source, amount, and frequency of the debtor's income;
- A list of all of the debtor's property; and
- A detailed list of the debtor's monthly living expenses, i.e., food, clothing, shelter, utilities, taxes, transportation, medicine, etc.
Married individuals must gather this information for their spouse regardless of whether they are filing a joint petition, separate individual petitions, or even if only one spouse is filing. In a situation where only one spouse files, the income and expenses of the non-filing spouse is required so that the court, the trustee and creditors can evaluate the household's financial position.
When an individual files a chapter 13 petition, an impartial trustee is appointed to administer the case. 11 U.S.C. §1302. In some districts, the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator (2) appoints a standing trustee to serve in all chapter 13 cases. 28 U.S.C. §586(b). The chapter 13 trustee both evaluates the case and serves as a disbursing agent, collecting payments from the debtor and making distributions to creditors. 11 U.S.C. §1302(b).
Filing the petition under chapter 13 "automatically stays" (stops) most collection actions against the debtor or the debtor's property. 11 U.S.C. §362. Filing the petition does not, however, stay certain types of actions listed under 11 U.S.C. §362(b), and the stay may be effective only for a short time in some situations. The stay arises by operation of law and requires no judicial action. As long as the stay is in effect, creditors generally may not initiate or continue lawsuits, wage garnishments, or even make telephone calls demanding payments. The bankruptcy clerk gives notice of the bankruptcy case to all creditors whose names and addresses are provided by the debtor.
Chapter 13 also contains a special automatic stay provision that protects co-debtors. Unless the bankruptcy court authorizes otherwise, a creditor may not seek to collect a "consumer debt" from any individual who is liable along with the debtor. 11 U.S.C. §1301(a). Consumer debts are those incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose. 11 U.S.C. §101(8).
Individuals may use a chapter 13 proceeding to save their home from foreclosure. The automatic stay stops the foreclosure proceeding as soon as the individual files the chapter 13 petition. The individual may then bring the past-due payments current over a reasonable period of time. Nevertheless, the debtor may still lose the home if the mortgage company completes the foreclosure sale under state law before the debtor files the petition. 11 U.S.C. §1322(c). The debtor may also lose the home if he or she fails to make the regular mortgage payments that come due after the chapter 13 filing.
Between 21 and 50 days after the debtor files the chapter 13 petition, the chapter 13 trustee will hold a meeting of creditors. If the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator schedules the meeting at a place that does not have regular U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator staffing, the meeting may be held no more than 60 days after the debtor files. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 2003(a). During this meeting, the trustee places the debtor under oath, and both the trustee and creditors may ask questions. The debtor must attend the meeting and answer questions regarding his or her financial affairs and the proposed terms of the plan.11 U.S.C. §343. If a husband and wife file a joint petition, they both must attend the creditors' meeting and answer questions. In order to preserve their independent judgment, bankruptcy judges are prohibited from attending the creditors' meeting. 11 U.S.C. §341(c). The parties typically resolve problems with the plan either during or shortly after the creditors' meeting. Generally, the debtor can avoid problems by making sure that the petition and plan are complete and accurate, and by consulting with the trustee prior to the meeting.
In a chapter 13 case, to participate in distributions from the bankruptcy estate, unsecured creditors must file their claims with the court within 90 days after the first date set for the meeting of creditors. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 3002(c). A governmental unit, however, has 180 days from the date the case is filed file a proof of claim.11 U.S.C. §502(b)(9).
After the meeting of creditors, the debtor, the chapter 13 trustee, and those creditors who wish to attend will come to court for a hearing on the debtor's chapter 13 repayment plan.
The Chapter 13 Plan and Confirmation Hearing
Unless the court grants an extension, the debtor must file a repayment plan with the petition or within 14 days after the petition is filed. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 3015. A plan must be submitted for court approval and must provide for payments of fixed amounts to the trustee on a regular basis, typically biweekly or monthly. The trustee then distributes the funds to creditors according to the terms of the plan, which may offer creditors less than full payment on their claims.
There are three types of claims: priority, secured, and unsecured. Priority claims are those granted special status by the bankruptcy law, such as most taxes and the costs of bankruptcy proceeding. (3) Secured claims are those for which the creditor has the right take back certain property (i.e., the collateral) if the debtor does not pay the underlying debt. In contrast to secured claims, unsecured claims are generally those for which the creditor has no special rights to collect against particular property owned by the debtor.
The plan must pay priority claims in full unless a particular priority creditor agrees to different treatment of the claim or, in the case of a domestic support obligation, unless the debtor contributes all "disposable income" - discussed below - to a five-year plan.11 U.S.C. §1322(a).
If the debtor wants to keep the collateral securing a particular claim, the plan must provide that the holder of the secured claim receive at least the value of the collateral. If the obligation underlying the secured claim was used to buy the collateral (e.g., a car loan), and the debt was incurred within certain time frames before the bankruptcy filing, the plan must provide for full payment of the debt, not just the value of the collateral (which may be less due to depreciation). Payments to certain secured creditors (i.e., the home mortgage lender), may be made over the original loan repayment schedule (which may be longer than the plan) so long as any arrearage is made up during the plan. The debtor should consult an attorney to determine the proper treatment of secured claims in the plan.
The plan need not pay unsecured claims in full as long it provides that the debtor will pay all projected "disposable income" over an "applicable commitment period," and as long as unsecured creditors receive at least as much under the plan as they would receive if the debtor's assets were liquidated under chapter 7. 11 U.S.C. §1325. In chapter 13, "disposable income" is income (other than child support payments received by the debtor) less amounts reasonably necessary for the maintenance or support of the debtor or dependents and less charitable contributions up to 15% of the debtor's gross income. If the debtor operates a business, the definition of disposable income excludes those amounts which are necessary for ordinary operating expenses. 11 U.S.C. §1325(b)(2)(A) and (B). The "applicable commitment period" depends on the debtor's current monthly income. The applicable commitment period must be three years if current monthly income is less than the state median for a family of the same size - and five years if the current monthly income is greater than a family of the same size. 11 U.S.C. §1325(d). The plan may be less than the applicable commitment period (three or five years) only if unsecured debt is paid in full over a shorter period.
Within 30 days after filing the bankruptcy case, even if the plan has not yet been approved by the court, the debtor must start making plan payments to the trustee. 11 U.S.C. §1326(a)(1). If any secured loan payments or lease payments come due before the debtor's plan is confirmed (typically home and automobile payments), the debtor must make adequate protection payments directly to the secured lender or lessor - deducting the amount paid from the amount that would otherwise be paid to the trustee. Id.
No later than 45 days after the meeting of creditors, the bankruptcy judge must hold a confirmation hearing and decide whether the plan is feasible and meets the standards for confirmation set forth in the Bankruptcy Code. 11 U.S.C. §§1324, 1325. Creditors will receive 28 days' notice of the hearing and may object to confirmation. Fed. R. Bankr. P. 2002(b). While a variety of objections may be made, the most frequent ones are that payments offered under the plan are less than creditors would receive if the debtor's assets were liquidated or that the debtor's plan does not commit all of the debtor's projected disposable income for the three or five year applicable commitment period.
If the court confirms the plan, the chapter 13 trustee will distribute funds received under the plan "as soon as is practicable." 11 U.S.C. §1326(a)(2). If the court declines to confirm the plan, the debtor may file a modified plan. 11 U.S.C. §1323. The debtor may also convert the case to a liquidation case under chapter 7. (4) 11 U.S.C. §1307(a). If the court declines to confirm the plan or the modified plan and instead dismisses the case, the court may authorize the trustee to keep some funds for costs, but the trustee must return all remaining funds to the debtor (other than funds already disbursed or due to creditors). 11 U.S.C. §1326(a)(2).
Occasionally, a change in circumstances may compromise the debtor's ability to make plan payments. For example, a creditor may object or threaten to object to a plan, or the debtor may inadvertently have failed to list all creditors. In such instances, the plan may be modified either before or after confirmation. 11 U.S.C. §§1323, 1329. Modification after confirmation is not limited to an initiative by the debtor, but may be at the request of the trustee or an unsecured creditor. 11 U.S.C. §1329(a).
Making the Plan Work
The provisions of a confirmed plan bind the debtor and each creditor. 11 U.S.C. §1327. Once the court confirms the plan, the debtor must make the plan succeed. The debtor must make regular payments to the trustee either directly or through payroll deduction, which will require adjustment to living on a fixed budget for a prolonged period. Furthermore, while confirmation of the plan entitles the debtor to retain property as long as payments are made, the debtor may not incur new debt without consulting the trustee, because additional debt may compromise the debtor's ability to complete the plan. 11 U.S.C. §§1305(c), 1322(a)(1), 1327.
A debtor may make plan payments through payroll deductions. This practice increases the likelihood that payments will be made on time and that the debtor will complete the plan. In any event, if the debtor fails to make the payments due under the confirmed plan, the court may dismiss the case or convert it to a liquidation case under chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code. 11 U.S.C. §1307(c). The court may also dismiss or convert the debtor's case if the debtor fails to pay any post-filing domestic support obligations (i.e., child support, alimony), or fails to make required tax filings during the case. 11 U.S.C. §§1307(c) and (e), 1308, 521.
The Chapter 13 Discharge
The bankruptcy law regarding the scope of the chapter 13 discharge is complex and has recently undergone major changes. Therefore, debtors should consult competent legal counsel prior to filing regarding the scope of the chapter 13 discharge.
A chapter 13 debtor is entitled to a discharge upon completion of all payments under the chapter 13 plan so long as the debtor: (1) certifies (if applicable) that all domestic support obligations that came due prior to making such certification have been paid; (2) has not received a discharge in a prior case filed within a certain time frame (two years for prior chapter 13 cases and four years for prior chapter 7, 11 and 12 cases); and (3) has completed an approved course in financial management (if the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator for the debtor's district has determined that such courses are available to the debtor). 11 U.S.C. §1328. The court will not enter the discharge, however, until it determines, after notice and a hearing, that there is no reason to believe there is any pending proceeding that might give rise to a limitation on the debtor's homestead exemption. 11 U.S.C. §1328(h).
The discharge releases the debtor from all debts provided for by the plan or disallowed (under section 502), with limited exceptions. Creditors provided for in full or in part under the chapter 13 plan may no longer initiate or continue any legal or other action against the debtor to collect the discharged obligations.
As a general rule, the discharge releases the debtor from all debts provided for by the plan or disallowed, with the exception of certain debts referenced in 11 U.S.C. §1328. Debts not discharged in chapter 13 include certain long term obligations (such as a home mortgage), debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor's conviction of a crime. To the extent that they are not fully paid under the chapter 13 plan, the debtor will still be responsible for these debts after the bankruptcy case has concluded. Debts for money or property obtained by false pretenses, debts for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity, and debts for restitution or damages awarded in a civil case for willful or malicious actions by the debtor that cause personal injury or death to a person will be discharged unless a creditor timely files and prevails in an action to have such debts declared nondischargeable. 11 U.S.C. §§1328, 523(c); Fed. R. Bankr. P. 4007(c).
The discharge in a chapter 13 case is somewhat broader than in a chapter 7 case. Debts dischargeable in a chapter 13, but not in chapter 7, include debts for willful and malicious injury to property (as opposed to a person), debts incurred to pay nondischargeable tax obligations, and debts arising from property settlements in divorce or separation proceedings. 11 U.S.C. §1328(a).
The Chapter 13 Hardship Discharge
After confirmation of a plan, circumstances may arise that prevent the debtor from completing the plan. In such situations, the debtor may ask the court to grant a "hardship discharge." 11 U.S.C. §1328(b). Generally, such a discharge is available only if: (1) the debtor's failure to complete plan payments is due to circumstances beyond the debtor's control and through no fault of the debtor; (2) creditors have received at least as much as they would have received in a chapter 7 liquidation case; and (3) modification of the plan is not possible. Injury or illness that precludes employment sufficient to fund even a modified plan may serve as the basis for a hardship discharge. The hardship discharge is more limited than the discharge described above and does not apply to any debts that are nondischargeable in a chapter 7 case. 11 U.S.C. §523.
- The "current monthly income" received by the debtor is a defined term in the Bankruptcy Code and means the average monthly income received over the six calendar months before commencement of the bankruptcy case, including regular contributions to household expenses from nondebtors and including income from the debtor's spouse if the petition is a joint petition, but not including social security income or certain payments made because the debtor is the victim of certain crimes. 11 U.S.C. §101(10A).
- In North Carolina and Alabama, bankruptcy administrators perform similar functions that U.S. trustees perform in the remaining forty-eight states. The bankruptcy administrator program is administered by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, while the U.S. trustee program is administered by the Department of Justice. For purposes of this publication, references to U.S. trustees are also applicable to bankruptcy administrators.
- Section 507 sets forth 10 categories of unsecured claims which Congress has, for public policy reasons, given priority of distribution over other unsecured claims.
- A fee of $25 is charged for converting a case under chapter 13 to a case under chapter 7.
Chapter 13 - Bankruptcy Basics? ›
A chapter 13 bankruptcy is also called a wage earner's plan. It enables individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay all or part of their debts. Under this chapter, debtors propose a repayment plan to make installments to creditors over three to five years.What is a Chapter 13 bankruptcy for dummies? ›
A chapter 13 bankruptcy is also called a wage earner's plan. It enables individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay all or part of their debts. Under this chapter, debtors propose a repayment plan to make installments to creditors over three to five years.How do I prepare for Chapter 13 bankruptcy? ›
- Step 1: Collect your documents. ...
- Step 2: Analyze your debt. ...
- Step 3: Take inventory of the property you have. ...
- Step 4: Create a budget and figure out the status of your income. ...
- Step 5: Take the first credit counseling course.
Although a Chapter 13 bankruptcy stays on your record for years, missed debt payments, defaults, repossessions, and lawsuits will also hurt your credit and may be more complicated to explain to a future lender than bankruptcy.What is the average monthly payment for Chapter 13? ›
A Chapter 13 petition for bankruptcy will likely necessitate a $500 to $600 monthly payment, especially for debtors paying at least one automobile through the payment plan. However, since the bankruptcy court will consider a large number of factors, this estimate could vary greatly.Why do so many Chapter 13 bankruptcies fail? ›
In most cases, failure is due to one of several reasons: Life circumstances. Not having the guidance of an experienced bankruptcy attorney. Over-ambition.What is the main advantage of a Chapter 13? ›
What is the advantage of Chapter 13 then? Chapter 13 bankruptcy provides people with the most powerful debt repayment plan available. Your Chapter 13 bankruptcy will keep any further interest from accruing on dischargeable debt. You just have to pay off the balance owed on the day you file bankruptcy.What not to do during Chapter 13? ›
Also do not not incur debt, use credit, credit cards, or enter into leases while in Chapter 13 without Bankruptcy Court approval, except in the case of an emergency for the protection and preservation of life, health or property. Contact your attorney if you need to sell property or incur debt.Will Chapter 13 leave me broke? ›
In Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you're able to keep expensive property like a house or a luxury car so long as you make monthly payments under a three-to-five year repayment plan. But unlike Chapter 7 which results in a discharge of debts in 96% of cases, only about 40% of Chapter 13 cases end in discharge.Is filing Chapter 13 hard? ›
In many cases, Chapter 13 bankruptcy offers the most flexibility. Chapter 13 bankruptcy can offer several substantial benefits compared to the other types of bankruptcy options available in the US. However, navigating the filing process can be incredibly difficult, and Chapter 13 bankruptcy is not for everyone.
Can you buy anything while in Chapter 13? ›
In Chapter 13, you are not permitted to borrow or use any other form of credit unless you have written permission from the Bankruptcy Judge or the Chapter 13 Trustee. The only exception for borrowing without prior approval is in the case of an emergency for the protection and preservation of life, health or property.Can you have a credit card while in Chapter 13? ›
Is It Possible to Qualify for Consumer Debt While in a Pending Chapter 13? Yes. Credit cards, vehicle loans, and even residential mortgage loans can be obtained during a chapter 13 case.Can I spend money after filing Chapter 13? ›
Spending While in Chapter 13
The money you make after the filing date should first be used to make your monthly plan payment to the Trustee. After that, your money is yours to do with as you please, up to a point: if you need to make a large purchase such as a car or a house, you might need the court's permission.
Changing jobs is one of the most common reasons for a bankruptcy plan payment increase. Moving on to a higher-paying career or position usually means that the debtor's income increases. Along with raises or promotions to higher paying jobs, the court may also view consistent overtime as a source of additional income.What if my Chapter 13 payment is too high? ›
If your Chapter 13 payments are too high, you might be able to modify your plan to make it more affordable. Reducing your payment amount will be easier if your payments are based on your income and expenses and how much disposable income you have each month.How many payments can you miss in Chapter 13? ›
At the same time, very few bankruptcy trustees are going to file a motion to dismiss against you over a single late payment. As a general rule, it takes two or three missed payments before action is taken to default a Chapter 13 bankruptcy plan. Still, you cannot guarantee that you will have that much time to act.Do you lose anything in Chapter 13? ›
Chapter 13 can be useful for people with serious debts who worry about losing their homes to bankruptcy. If you adhere to your repayment plan, you'll have a new lease on financial life. Unsecured debts will be gone, but mortgages and car payments might linger.How much of your debt do you pay back in Chapter 13? ›
The Minimum Percentage of Debt Repayments In A Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Is 8 To 10 Percent.What are the worst bankruptcies? ›
|Company||Bankruptcy date||Total assets pre-bankruptcy|
|Enron Corp.||December 2, 2001||$65,503,000,000|
|Conseco, Inc.||December 17, 2002||$61,392,000,000|
|MF Global||August 11, 2011||$41,000,000,000|
|Chrysler||April 30, 2009||$39,300,000,000|
Tax obligations while filing Chapter 13 bankruptcy:
During a bankruptcy taxpayers must continue to file, or get an extension of time to file, all required returns. During a bankruptcy case taxpayers should pay all current taxes as they come due.
What happens to taxes in Chapter 13? ›
You still have to pay taxes while in chapter 13 bankruptcy. Tax debt owed before your case is filed will be included in your chapter 13 and must be paid in full over the course of the 3-5 years repayment plan. Tax returns that you receive during this 3-5 year period must be provided to your trustee.What is the interest rate for Chapter 13? ›
In Chapter 13, the court applies a standard interest rate for your debt. This standard rate is the Wall Street Journal prime rate, plus 1.5%.Does Chapter 13 wipe your credit? ›
Chapter 13 bankruptcy is typically removed from your credit report seven years after the date you filed, and this is done automatically.Is Chapter 7 or 13 worse? ›
Chapter 7 stays on your record for 10 years, while Chapter 13 stays for seven years. That would seem to suggest that Chapter 7 is worse for your credit score, but with Chapter 7, your debt, or at least the unsecured debt, will be gone. That means you can try to start rebuilding it immediately.How long does Chapter 13 hurt your credit? ›
Filing for bankruptcy can hurt an individual's credit, and the impact can last for years. A Chapter 7 bankruptcy may stay on credit reports for 10 years from the filing date, while a Chapter 13 bankruptcy generally remains for seven years from the filing date.Is Chapter 13 or Chapter 7 better? ›
You may like to file Chapter 13 instead of a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, if you're behind on your mortgage payments and you're trying to save your home. Chapter 7 does not give you the opportunity to catch up mortgage payments or otherwise save your house. A Chapter 13 would be the appropriate chapter to file for that.Can creditors come after me after Chapter 13? ›
Debt collectors cannot try to collect on debts that were discharged in bankruptcy. Also, if you file for bankruptcy, debt collectors are not allowed to continue collection activities while the bankruptcy case is pending in court.How long does it take to rebuild credit after Chapter 13? ›
You can typically work to improve your credit score over 12-18 months after bankruptcy. Most people will see some improvement after one year if they take the right steps. You can't remove bankruptcy from your credit report unless it is there in error.Do you pay all debt in Chapter 13? ›
You don't have to pay unsecured debts in full. Instead, you pay all your disposable income toward the debt during your three-year or five-year repayment plan. The unsecured creditors must receive as much as they would have if you'd filed Chapter 7.How to rebuild credit after Chapter 13? ›
- Don't try to borrow money too quickly.
- Focus on making on-time payments.
- Build an emergency fund.
- Stick to a budget.
- Keep a close eye on your credit reports and scores.
Does Chapter 13 bankruptcy save you money? ›
In addition, in a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy, you won't have to pay any past penalties even if the underlying taxes are non-dischargeable. These savings can be enormous. Just because you file a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy case does not mean you have to stay in it for the entire 3 to 5 year period.Is there life after bankruptcy Chapter 13? ›
The bottom line is that once you start over in Bankruptcy, learn healthy money management skills and begin to regain your credit, you can live a life of abundance with peace of mind and security.What is the failure rate for Chapter 13? ›
Chapter 13 Has a Failure Rate of 67%
Why do roughly 2 out of every 3 Chapter 13 cases fail? Well, to get a discharge of your debts, you need to complete a 3-5 year repayment plan. And most plans are 5 years long. Only at the end of the plan will the remainder of some debts be forgiven.